- It is an action by a central that affects the value of its currency, by selling or buying foreign currency in exchange for their own domestic one, as an attempt to influence the exchange rate.
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Terminology[ edit linia de asistență locală bitcoin Some definitions: Complementary currency - is used as a complement to a national currency,  as a medium of exchangewhich is usually not legal tender.
Local currency - a complementary currency used in a locality. Auxiliary currency, microcurrency, Eco-Money - less common synonyms for community or local currency. Complementary currencies are a type of private currency. Alternative currency - generally, a synonym for complementary currency, referring to a currency designed to work in conjunction with the national currency; less often refers to a type of private currency which attempts to supplant or circumvent the national currency.
Purpose[ edit ] Local currencies aim at using money as a tool to achieve social or environmental objectives. Some of the purposes for community currencies identified by Community Currencies in Action  include: Democratizing services and organisations: time credits for volunteering encourage people to actively engage in their community while making services, such as elderly care, more democratic.
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Zeitvorsoge,  Makkie  Supporting small and medium enterprises: Community currencies can serve as a means to promote independent shops over large corporations since they keep on circulating locally. They can also help SMEs support each other financially by lending and receiving credit, goods and services within the currency network.
Examples are: Bristol PoundSoNantes,  TradeQoin,  Chiemgauer Countering inequality and social exclusion: Specially designed currencies can address inequality issues by giving everyone the chance to get involved in their community; for instance by rewarding participation in voluntary programs.
Spice Time Credits,  Makkie Addressing environmental impacts: Community currencies can play a role in better valuation of environmental resources and providing an incentive for more sustainable behavior. For example, the Belgian Portemonnee rewards residents for environmentally positive actions such as composting.
Reward currencies can also encourage businesses to adopt more environmentally sound practices. Benefits[ edit ] The Wörgl experiment illustrates some of the common characteristics and major benefits of local currencies. Local currencies with negative interest rate or demurrage tend to circulate much more rapidly than national currencies. The same amount of currency in circulation is employed more times and results in far greater overall economic activity.
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It produces greater benefit per unit. The higher velocity of money is a result of the negative interest rate which encourages people to spend the money more quickly. Local currencies enable the community to more fully use its existing productive resources, especially unemployed labor, which has a catalytic effect versiune de probă a opțiunilor binare the rest of the local economy.
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They are based on the premise that the community is not fully using its productive capacities, because of a lack of local purchasing power. The alternative currency is used to increase demand, resulting in a greater exploitation of productive resources. So long as the local economy is functioning at less than full capacity, the introduction of local currency need not be inflationary, even when it results in a significant increase in total money supply and total economic activity.
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Since local currencies are only accepted within the community, their usage encourages the purchase of locally produced and locally-available goods and services. Thus, for any level of economic activity, more of the benefit accrues to the local community and less drains out to other parts of the country or the world. For instance, construction work undertaken with local currencies employs local labor and uses as far as possible local materials.
The enhanced local effect becomes an incentive for the local population to accept and use the scrips.
Numere de telefon ale fondului de pensii. În ciuda numelui, această instituție rezolvă nu numai problemele de pensie. Mulți oameni adoră comunicarea live cu contactul vizual și merg direct la sucursalele fondului, dar pot apărea întrebări pe măsură ce sunt întreprinse unele acțiuni și nu există nicio modalitate de a contacta departamentul, caz în care telefonul va fi salvat.
Some forms of complementary currency can promote fuller use of resources over a much wider geographic area and help bridge linia de asistență locală bitcoin barriers imposed by linia de asistență locală bitcoin. The Fureai kippu system in Japan issues credits in exchange for assistance to senior citizens. Family members living far from their parents can earn credits by offering assistance to the elderly in their local community.
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The credits can then be transferred to their parents and redeemed by them for local assistance. Airline frequent flyer miles are a form of complementary currency that promotes customer-loyalty in exchange for free travel.
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The airlines offer most of the coupons for seats on less heavily sold flights where some seats normally go empty, thus providing a benefit to customers at relatively low cost to the airline. While most of these currencies are restricted to a small geographic area or a country, through the Internet electronic forms of complementary currency can be used to stimulate transactions on a global basis.
In China, Tencent's QQ coins are a virtual form of currency that has gained wide circulation. QQ coins can be bought for Renminbi and used to buy virtual products and services such as ringtones and on-line video game time. They can also be obtained through on-line exchange for goods and services at about twice the Renminbi price, by which additional 'money' is being directly created.
Though virtual currencies are not 'local' in the linia de asistență locală bitcoin sense, they do cater to the specific needs of a particular community, a virtual community. Once in circulation, they add to the total effective purchasing power of the on-line population as in the case of local currencies.
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The Chinese government has begun to tax the coins as they are exchanged from virtual currency to actual hard currency. Transition currency based on the local currencies used by the Transition Towns movement in the UK. The currency is used by both tourists and local residents of Salt Spring Island.
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- În momentul scrierii, moneda este tranzacționată la nivelul de ,46 dolari.
Between many experiments in local currency took this form. Such currencies aim to raise the resilience of local economies by encouraging re-localisation of buying and food production. The drive for this change has arisen from a range of community-based initiatives and social movements.
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The Transition Towns movement originating in the UK has used local currencies for re-localisation in the face of energy descent from peak oil and climate change. Other drives include movements against Clone town   and Big-box trends. Rewards currency based on the frequent flyer model.
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Consumer spends cash with participating businesses who issue rewards points in a local currency. These rewards points can be used to offset cash prices in future purchases.
Mutual Credit currency based on the mutual credit system. This can be further sub-divided into two: a. Time-based currency also known as Time Banks that use time as a measure of value. An example is Dane County Time Bank.
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Trade exchanges and LETS local exchange trading system that use price as a measure of value. Australia, France, New Zealand, and Switzerland have similar systems. Software[ edit ] Several software packages have been written supporting the management of community currencies.